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Avalon Deluxe Jewelry Dictionary: Letters A-F

by Emanuel Baumann 01 Jan 2023
JEWELRY LEXICON
The AVALON DELUXE jewelry dictionary - everything you need to know about watches and jewelry.
A

Stripping
Special cleaning process by the goldsmith (in the cleaning bath), during which scale or oxides are removed

agate (chalcedony)
silicon dioxide; very hard stone with very different colors, caused by different mineral deposits - mostly in streaky markings; the drawing of the fortress agate, for example, is reminiscent of the aerial view of old bastions (hence the name), moss agate is colorless or off-white with dark or moss-like inclusions; the most famous site is Idar-Oberstein; other localities: Uruguay, Brazil; Moss agate is found in India, China and the USA

achroite (tourmaline)
borosilicate; rare, colorless tourmaline; the name derives from the Greek word acroos (without color); Locations: Madagascar, California

Eight curb chain
Filigree, very compact chain shape with S-shaped, quite narrow links that are lined up very closely together; closed stitch pattern

octagonal cut
Fine cut for round shapes with 1 table surface and 16 fine surfaces

Acier inoxydable
French term for stainless steel, as it is often used in stainless steel cases

Addition stopper
A special form of chronograph in which the chrono hand can be restarted using the crown/pusher without resetting, i. H the new time to be measured is added to the stopped time. This is always the case with both mechanical and quartz chronographs

Adular
See orthoclase, white, rarely colorless - transparent

Adjustment
Regulation, fine tuning

Akoya cultured pearl
Round pearl in white, rose, cream, gold, green-white or grey; has been bred in southwestern Japan and China since the early 1900s; has a diameter of 2 to 10 mm; see also Pearl

Alabaster
Calcium sulphate containing hydrates; plaster type; fine-grained and pastel-colored; very soft and therefore only conditionally suitable for jewelry processing; Locations: Italy, England

albite
sodium calcium aluminum silicate; white or colorless, with a luster similar to moonstone; Location: Canada

Alexandrite
See Chrysoberyl

almandine (garnet)
iron aluminum silicate; what we call garnet is either almandine or pyrope; Almandines are usually darker red than pyropes and sometimes appear almost black; Almandine occurs in metamorphic rocks such as slates; you can find him worldwide

Alpaca
A corrosion-resistant alloy of nickel, copper and zinc occasionally used for housing in the past

a. m
Abbreviation for ante meridiem: before noon; means the time between midnight and 12 noon; the time between 12 noon and midnight is marked p. m (post meridiem: after noon) abbreviated to

Amazonite
See Microcline

Amblygonite
Lithium Aluminum Hydroxyphosphate; white, pink, green, blue, yellow, rarely colourless; very soft and therefore only conditionally suitable for jewelry processing; Main localities: pegmatia, Brazil; Other localities: USA, Namibia

amethyst (quartz)
silicon dioxide; of violet color; Viewed from different directions, the amethyst shows different hues; when heated, it changes color to yellow or brown, becoming citrine; Mixed forms of citrine and amethyst are called ametrine; Amethysts from Russia are slightly red in colour, Canadian amethysts are more purple; Other localities: Brazil, Sri Lanka, India, Uruguay, Madagascar, USA, Germany, Australia, Namibia, Zambia

Ametrine
See Amethyst

amplitude
amplitude; designates the greatest deviation of a vibrating body from the zero position; the amplitude determines the accuracy of the watch. From the amplitude, the watchmaker can draw conclusions about the mechanical condition of the movement. Too low an amplitude means a loss of power in the movement on the way from the mainspring to the balance

Analog display
Time display with a round or square face and a center point with rotating hands

Andalusite
Aluminum silicate; tawny, bottle green, dark brown, and reddish green; looks yellow, green or red when viewed from different directions; Locations: Sri Lanka, Brazil, Spain, Canada, Russia, Australia, USA

Andradite (garnet)
Calcium iron silicate; garnet with a titanium and manganese content; the most valuable is the Emerald Green Demantoid; the yellow andradite is called topazolite, the dark red-black melantine; the most beautiful demantoids are found in Russia; other localities: Northern Italy, Zaire, Kenya; Topazolite crystals can be found in the Alps, melanite on Elba, in France and in Germany

pendant watch
Term for a watch worn around the neck or on a belt; especially popular in the 15th /16. Century

Anchor chain, pressed round
Compact chain shape with very narrow links that interlock alternately lengthwise and crosswise; tight mesh

Anchor chain, pressed square
Compact chain shape with narrow links that interlock alternately lengthwise and crosswise; tight, closed mesh structure

Anchor chain, filed square
Compact chain shape with narrow links that interlock alternately lengthwise and crosswise; tight, closed mesh structure

Antimagnetic
Is a movement whose functionality is not affected by magnetic influences; antimagnetic metals such as palladium, brass or gold or shielding housings or dials are used for this.

apatite
calcium phosphate; very soft stone, cut only for collectors; colorless, yellow, blue, violet, or green; blue apatite is found in Burma and Sri Lanka, yellow, blue and green apatite in Russia, Canada, East Africa, Sweden, Spain and Mexico

aquamarine
berylium aluminum silicate; sea ​​blue to sea green gemstone; the Latin name aquamarine means sea water; sometimes looks blue and sometimes colorless when viewed from different directions; the highest quality aquamarines come from Brazil; Other localities: Russia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nigeria

Arabic numerals
Writing of the 10 numerals taken from the Arabic script; used on dials as well as Roman numerals

aragonite
calcium carbonate; translucent or colorless white; Deposits can make it appear yellow, blue, pink, or green; Locations: Czech Republic, Turkey, Spain, Colorado (USA), France, England

Bracelet chronometer
Wristwatch with a precision movement that does not exceed the officially specified rate tolerances at the time of testing by the certifying body

Wristwatch
Watch worn on the wrist; around 1900 as a mechanical hand-wound wheel clock, since around 1950 mainly with an automatic winding mechanism, since around 1957 also battery-operated and since the end of 1960 also with a quartz movement

lock
device for stopping processes in the movement, e.g. B Stopping the balance wheel or pendulum

Art Deco
Art style around 1920, which followed Art Nouveau; characterized by clear, linear and cubic forms

Astronomical clock
Shows the time as well as the date, day of the week, month, if applicable also year and sunrise and sunset; However, wristwatches are usually limited to the so-called full calendar day / date / month / year

for reasons of space

Atomic clock
Works with specific atoms (eg. B sodium, cesium, rubinium), which are excited to vibrate by an electromagnetic field. An atomic clock is a clock whose timing is derived from the characteristic frequency of radiation transitions of the electrons of free atoms. The time display of a reference clock is continuously compared and adjusted with the clock generator. Atomic clocks are currently the most accurate clocks and are also called primary clocks

automatic watch
wound by movement; Invented by Abraham-Louis Perrelet in 1770, later refined by Breguet; works with a rotating flywheel, which is activated by arm movement

aventurine quartz
silicon dioxide; Type of quartz with small crystal inclusions that determine the color of the stone; embedded chrome mica makes it green, iron luster plates give it a brown and red color; Main localities: Brazil, India, Russia; Other localities: USA, Japan, Tanzania

axinite
borosilicate; brownish, sometimes yellow or purple; owes its name to the ancient Greek word axine = axe, because it occurs in sharp-edged, axe-shaped crystals; brittle and rarely flawless, therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing; Locations: USA, Mexico, England, France, Sri Lanka

Azurite
Copper hydroxyl carbonate; azure blue, often occurs in combination with malachite; Localities: Australia, Chile, Africa, China; Stones from Chessy, France are called chessylite

B

Baguette
For watches: longitudinal shape of movement and case with an aspect ratio of at least 1:3; Popular with women's watches in the 1920s, back in fashion today. Or a rectangular gemstone cut with straight side edges

Bajonet catch
Connection of two elements with a sliding pin or knob

Barometer
With integrated mercury barometer; uses the changing air pressure to wind up the mainspring and therefore does not require any additional energy

barite
barium sulfate; comes in different colors: white, yellow and blue; very soft and brittle, therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing; Locations: England, Romania, Germany, USA, Italy

benitoite
barium titanium silicate; known since 1906 mostly in blue coloration; only locality: California

rock crystal
silicon dioxide; the colorless, transparent rock crystal is the most widespread, purest form of quartz; the name derives from the Greek krystallos (= ice), because rock crystal was thought to be ice created by the gods; Rock crystals are found all over the world; most important locality: Brazil

Amber
Fossil tree sap; golden yellow or golden orange in colour; Translucent to translucent, often with encased plant or animal remains to whole insects; its name comes from its flammability (formerly: Brennstein); the most famous sites are in the Baltic States; Amber from Burma is called birmit; Stones from Sicily are called Simetites; Other localities: Dominican Republic, Mexico, Germany, Romania, Canada

beryl, red
beryllium aluminum silicate; in red (due to the manganese content) very rare; also called Bixbit; Location: USA

beryllium
Natural metal contained in beryl; as a proportion of metal alloys, it increases hardness and elasticity

beryllonite
sodium beryllium phosphate; colourless, white or pale yellow; very brittle and therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing; Locations: USA, Finland, Zimbabwe

Bicolor
Bicolor

Birmite
See Amber

Bixmit
See red beryl

Leaf spring
See spring

Bloodstone
See Hematite

Bonamite
See Smithsonite

Boston chain
Compact chain shape with narrow, angular links that interlock alternately lengthwise and crosswise; striking mesh pattern

bowenite
See serpentine

brasilianite
aluminum sodium hydroxyl phosphate; very rare, yellow-green to lemon-yellow in colour; named after Brazil, the most important locality; very brittle and therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing

Brilliant cut
Fine cut for round shapes with 1 table surface and 56 fine surfaces

Britannia Silver
See Silver

Bronze
Copper and tin alloy; very corrosion resistant, elastic and easy to cast; is often combined with other metals (e.g. B aluminium) to achieve certain degrees of hardness or elasticity

Bronzite
See Hypersthene

C

cabochon
semi- or full-spherical gemstone (=shape designation)

Calcite (calcite)
Calcium carbonate; colorless or milky white and very soft; Main component of limestone and marble; also found in combination with other minerals; Main locality: Italy; colorless rhombuses are called iceland spar; pink and green crystals are also found in the USA, Germany and France

Californite
See Vesuvian

cerussite
lead carbonate; mostly colorless, sometimes also white, gray or black; very soft, therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing; Main locality: Namibia; Other localities: Austria, Australia, USA, Germany, Scotland

Chessylite
See azurite

Chrome
Very hard, brittle and heat-resistant white metal; is often used to coat metal objects, e.g. B in wristwatches; see also chrome plating

Chronograph
Watch with additional mechanism for short-term measurements (stopwatch), which are indicated by an additional chrono hand

Chronograph rattrapante
Watch with two chronograph movements and superimposed chronograph hands; allows the measurement of intermediate times. While one hand can be stopped to record the split time, the second hand keeps running. The stopped pointer can then be unlocked to catch up (jump) with its partner. This process can be repeated as often as you like.

Chronology
Doctrine of time, science of measuring and dividing up time; time science.

Chronomatic
Artificial word for chronograph with automatic winding; see also automatic watch

Chronometer
Original term for very accurate clocks; today term for precision watches that have been tested at an official test center and have not exceeded the specified limit values

chrysoberyl
beryllium aluminum oxide; yellow-green or yellow-brown in colour; Variants: alexandrite and cat's eye, show up green in daylight, red, violet or brown in artificial light; the cat's eye also has almost white lines of light on the yellow-grey stone; Main locality: Russia; Other localities: Sri Lanka, Burma, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Madagascar

Chrysocolla
Copper silicate containing hydrate; light green or blue-green; crystals intergrown with quartz or opal are mostly used for jewelry; Locations: Chile, Zaire

Chrysoprase/Prasem
Intense green color, already very popular in ancient Greece and Rome; since 1965 the best chrysoprase has come from Queensland (Australia); other localities: Russia, California, Brazil, Austria; the emerald quartz Prasem is dark green and rare

citrine (quartz)
silicon dioxide; heat-treated amethyst, which owes its name to its lemon yellow color; natural citrines are rare. There is no discernible difference between a naturally found amethyst or a "burnt amethyst".

celestine
strontium sulfate; forms colorless, milky white, yellow, orange, or pale blue crystals; extremely sensitive and therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing; Localities: Namibia, Madagascar, Italy, England, USA, Canada

cord chain
chain shape with two individual cords wrapped very tightly around each other

corderite (ioilite)
magnesium aluminum silicate; violet blue, also called water sapphire because of its resemblance to blue sapphire; however, the stone can appear colorless from the side; Localities: Sri Lanka, Burma, Madagascar, India, Tanzania

Curvex
Coveted rectangular shape around 1930, mainly used for ladies' watches; very slim, slightly curved shape that is adapted to the wrist

Cyprin
See Vesuvian

D

danburite
calcium borosilicate; colorless, but also yellow and pink; very similar to colorless topaz, distinguishable from it only by cleavage and weight; Locations: USA, Burma, Mexico, Switzerland, Italy, Japan

datolite
calcium hydroxyl boron silicate; mostly transparent and almost colorless, sometimes with a slight yellow or green tinge; unsuitable for jewelry processing; Locations: Austria, Italy, Norway, USA, Germany, England

Date display
Additional function for displaying the date, e.g. T also with weekday display / year / month / day.

date line
The 180th degree of longitude; time east of this boundary is 1 hour behind, time west is 1 hour ahead

cover glass
See watch glass

demantoid
See andradite

German armored chain, upright
Simple, no-frills chain shape with individual links arranged close together; compact stitch pattern

German armored chain
Simple, no-frills chain shape with clearly visible individual links that loosely interlock; open stitch pattern

diamond
pure carbon; the hardest mineral material on earth; since diamonds consist of pure carbon, they have a very regular crystal structure; Flawless, colorless diamonds are extremely rare, the majority having a slight tint and more or less obvious inclusions; Localities: Australia, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Zaire, Botswana, Namibia, USA, Brazil; The value of a diamond is measured according to four C-criteria: color (colour), cut (cut), clarity (purity), carat (weight) and its scarcity.

Digital display
Form of representation of the time with digits/dots in a dial section (window); comes without a pointer.

diopsid
calcium magnesium silicate; green, possibly also colourless; bright green diopside with chromium as the coloring substance is called chromium diopside; violet-blue crystals with coloring manganese are also called violane; Violan is found in Italy and the USA: chromium diopside is found in Burma, Siberia, Pakistan and South Africa; Other localities: Austria, Brazil, Italy, USA, Madagascar, Canada, Sri Lanka

Dioptase
Copper silicate containing hydrate; shines in a slightly bluish emerald green; sometimes confused with emerald; Locations: Russia, Namibia, Zaire, Chile, Arizona

Direct winding
Special type of crown winding; the mainspring is wound around the winding stem e.g. B for wall clocks / table clocks / alarm clocks.

Display
Engl. : show, display; is also used today for the digital display of electronic clocks. Numbers, letters and symbols can be displayed.

Dolomite
Magnesium and calcium carbonate; colorless, white, pink, or yellow; very soft and therefore only conditionally suitable for jewelry processing; Locations: Italy, Switzerland, Germany, USA

Double anchor chain
Rough link chain form with multiple links; uneven, busy mesh structure

Double anchor chain, pressed
Chain shape with narrow links arranged diagonally next to each other; even mesh structure

Double anchor chain, twisted
Chain shape with two individual straps wrapped around each other

double chronograph
watch with two chronograph mechanisms that work more or less independently of each other; can be used to measure different short times

Double chronometer
Chronometer with two independent movements (and dials) in a common case, which physically influence each other, i. H mutually compensate for their minor irregularities

double curb chain
lush chain shape, in which two times two links interlock; resulting in an uneven, lively stitch pattern

Doublé
Gold plating, given in microns; 10 microns = 1/1000 millimeters

dravite (tourmaline)
borosilicate; very dark, yellow-brown to brown tourmaline, rich in magnesium; Locations: Sri Lanka, USA, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Australia

pusher
push pin, for a specific function in the watch, e.g. B stopwatch at the chronograph; is usually located on the side of the housing

dumortierite
aluminum iron borosilicate; Colour: violet-blue with a coarse character; named after the French paleontologist M. E dumor animal; sometimes interspersed with rock crystal - it is then called dumortierite quartz; high-quality stones can be found in Nevada (USA); Other localities: France, Madagascar, Norway, Sri Lanka, Canada, Poland, Namibia, Italy

E

Precious metals
Metals that are air-resistant, corrosion-resistant and acid-resistant; precious metals include gold, silver, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum. These are alloyed (mixed with other metals) to make jewelry, which partially weakens the properties of precious metals.

Inserted anchor chain
Chain shape with very narrow links, which alternately interlock transversely and longitudinally; rather loose mesh structure

Iron
Heavy metal, occurs naturally as iron ore; Pure iron can hardly be used because of its low hardness and is only made tense by additives such as carbon, e.g. B to Steel

Electrolysis
Decomposition of an element using electricity; becomes e.g. B used in the separation of solid metals such as copper, gold and silver from the solutions of the metal salts

Electromechanical watch
Works with a conventional balance-spring-oscillating system, but which is electrically driven

Electronic clock
clock in which the electrical energy (e.g. B the battery) contactless via electronic components (e.g. B Transistors) is used to supply an electronic circuit with energy. In contrast to the clock with a mechanical gear regulator (pendulum / balance wheel), the electronics take over the gear regulation here and the hands are moved by a motor.

Electrum
See Silver

Electric clock
Only works with battery or mains

Elemental clocks
General term for all clocks that work with natural elements (e.g. B Sundial, hourglass, water clock etc. )

Ivory
Elephant tusks, but also hippopotamus, wild boar, warthog, sperm whale, walrus, sea lion and narwhal teeth; popular for its creamy color and easy workability; particularly beautiful ivory comes from African elephants; may no longer be traded today due to animal welfare

Enamel
Flaze of quartz sand, fluorspar, borax, soda and lead oxide, colored with metal oxide pigments; Often used to decorate wristwatch cases and dials, but also used in the jewelry industry

Enamel watches
pocket watches whose cases (possibly also dials) are decorated with enamel paintings

enstatite
magnesium iron silicate; grey-green, yellow-green or olive-green in colour; brown-green enstatite is found in Burma, California and Norway; Other localities: Sri Lanka, India, USA, Switzerland, Greece, Scotland, Japan

epidote
calcium aluminum iron hydroxyl silicate; yellow, green or dark brown crystals that are very brittle; a dark red epidote is called piemontite - named after the place where it was found, Piemont; dark green crystals are found in the Austrian or French Alps; Epidote is also found in Italy, Mozambique, and Mexico

pea chain
Chain shape with small, flattened and spherical links that interlock alternately lengthwise and crosswise; tight mesh.

Euklas
beryllium aluminum hydroxyl silicate; white, green, blue or colorless; most desirable in pale blue; very sensitive and therefore only conditionally suitable for jewelry processing; Localities: Brazil, Tanzania, Zaire, Kenya, India, Zimbabwe, USA

Perpetual calendar
For mechanical watches, the most complex calendar mechanism with moon age and moon phase display; also takes into account the different lengths of the months and leap years. Extremely rare version.

JEWELRY LEXICON
The AVALON DELUXE jewelry dictionary - everything you need to know about watches and jewelry.
A

Stripping
Special cleaning process by the goldsmith (in the cleaning bath), during which scale or oxides are removed

agate (chalcedony)
silicon dioxide; very hard stone with very different colors, caused by different mineral deposits - mostly in streaky markings; the drawing of the fortress agate, for example, is reminiscent of the aerial view of old bastions (hence the name), moss agate is colorless or off-white with dark or moss-like inclusions; the most famous site is Idar-Oberstein; other localities: Uruguay, Brazil; Moss agate is found in India, China and the USA

achroite (tourmaline)
borosilicate; rare, colorless tourmaline; the name derives from the Greek word acroos (without color); Locations: Madagascar, California

Eight curb chain
Filigree, very compact chain shape with S-shaped, quite narrow links that are lined up very closely together; closed stitch pattern

octagonal cut
Fine cut for round shapes with 1 table surface and 16 fine surfaces

Acier inoxydable
French term for stainless steel, as it is often used in stainless steel cases

Addition stopper
A special form of chronograph in which the chrono hand can be restarted using the crown/pusher without resetting, i.e. to the The new time to be measured is added to the stopped time. This is always the case with both mechanical and quartz chronographs

Adular
See orthoclase, white, rarely colorless - transparent

Adjustment
Regulation, fine tuning

Akoya cultured pearl
Round pearl in white, rose, cream, gold, green-white or grey; has been bred in southwestern Japan and China since the early 1900s; has a diameter of 2 to 10 mm; see also Pearl

Alabaster
Calcium sulphate containing hydrates; plaster type; fine-grained and pastel-colored; very soft and therefore only conditionally suitable for jewelry processing; Locations: Italy, England

albite
sodium calcium aluminum silicate; white or colorless, with a luster similar to moonstone; Location: Canada

Alexandrite
See Chrysoberyl

almandine (garnet)
iron aluminum silicate; what we call garnet is either almandine or pyrope; Almandines are usually darker red than pyropes and sometimes appear almost black; Almandine occurs in metamorphic rocks such as slates; you can find him worldwide

Alpaca
A corrosion-resistant alloy of nickel, copper and zinc occasionally used for housing in the past

a.m.
Abbreviation for ante meridiem: before noon; means the time between midnight and 12 noon; the time between 12 noon and midnight is given as p.m. (post meridiem: after noon) abbreviated to

Amazonite
See Microcline

Amblygonite
Lithium Aluminum Hydroxyphosphate; white, pink, green, blue, yellow, rarely colourless; very soft and therefore only conditionally suitable for jewelry processing; Main localities: pegmatia, Brazil; other localities: USA, Namibia

amethyst (quartz)
silicon dioxide; of violet color; Viewed from different directions, the amethyst shows different hues; when heated, it changes color to yellow or brown, becoming citrine; Mixed forms of citrine and amethyst are called ametrine; Amethysts from Russia are slightly red in colour, Canadian amethysts are more purple; Other localities: Brazil, Sri Lanka, India, Uruguay, Madagascar, USA, Germany, Australia, Namibia, Zambia

Ametrine
See Amethyst

amplitude
amplitude; designates the greatest deviation of a vibrating body from the zero position; the amplitude determines the accuracy of the watch. From the amplitude, the watchmaker can draw conclusions about the mechanical condition of the movement. Too low an amplitude means a loss of power in the movement on the way from the mainspring to the balance

Analog display
Time display with a round or square face and a center point with rotating hands

Andalusite
Aluminum silicate; tawny, bottle green, dark brown, and reddish green; looks yellow, green or red when viewed from different directions; Locations: Sri Lanka, Brazil, Spain, Canada, Russia, Australia, USA

Andradite (garnet)
Calcium iron silicate; garnet with a titanium and manganese content; the most valuable is the Emerald Green Demantoid; the yellow andradite is called topazolite, the dark red-black melantine; the most beautiful demantoids are found in Russia; other localities: Northern Italy, Zaire, Kenya; Topazolite crystals can be found in the Alps, melanite on Elba, in France and in Germany

pendant watch
Term for a watch worn around the neck or on a belt; particularly popular in the 15th/16th Century

Anchor chain, pressed round
Compact chain shape with very narrow links that interlock alternately lengthwise and crosswise; tight mesh

Anchor chain, pressed square
Compact chain shape with narrow links that interlock alternately lengthwise and crosswise; tight, closed mesh structure

Anchor chain, filed square
Compact chain shape with narrow links that interlock alternately lengthwise and crosswise; tight, closed mesh structure

Antimagnetic
Is a movement whose functionality is not affected by magnetic influences; antimagnetic metals such as palladium, brass or gold or shielding housings or dials are used for this.

apatite
calcium phosphate; very soft stone, cut only for collectors; colorless, yellow, blue, violet, or green; blue apatite is found in Burma and Sri Lanka, yellow, blue and green apatite in Russia, Canada, East Africa, Sweden, Spain and Mexico

aquamarine
berylium aluminum silicate; sea ​​blue to sea green gemstone; the Latin name aquamarine means sea water; sometimes looks blue and sometimes colorless when viewed from different directions; the highest quality aquamarines come from Brazil; Other localities: Russia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nigeria

Arabic numerals
Writing of the 10 numerals taken from the Arabic script; used on dials as well as Roman numerals

aragonite
calcium carbonate; translucent or colorless white; Deposits can make it yellow, blue, pink or large let ün act; Locations: Czech Republic, Turkey, Spain, Colorado (USA), France, England

Bracelet chronometer
Wristwatch with a precision movement that does not exceed the officially specified rate tolerances at the time of testing by the certifying body

Wristwatch
Watch worn on the wrist; around 1900 as a mechanical hand-wound wheel clock, since around 1950 mainly with an automatic winding mechanism, since around 1957 also battery-operated and since the end of 1960 also with a quartz movement

arresting device
device for stopping processes in the movement, e.g. stopping the balance wheel or the pendulum

Art Deco
Art style around 1920, which followed Art Nouveau; characterized by clear, linear and cubic forms

Astronomical clock
In addition to the time, it also shows the date, day of the week, month, possibly also the year and sunrise and sunset; However, wristwatches are usually limited to the so-called full calendar day / date / month / year

for reasons of space

Atomic clock
Works with certain atoms (e.g. sodium, cesium, rubinium), which are excited to vibrate by an electromagnetic field. An atomic clock is a clock whose timing is derived from the characteristic frequency of radiation transitions of the electrons of free atoms. The time display of a reference clock is continuously compared and adjusted with the clock generator. Atomic clocks are currently the most accurate clocks and are also called primary clocks

automatic watch
wound by movement; Invented by Abraham-Louis Perrelet in 1770, later refined by Breguet; works with a rotating flywheel, which is activated by arm movement

aventurine quartz
silicon dioxide; Type of quartz with small crystal inclusions that determine the color of the stone; embedded chrome mica makes it green, iron luster plates give it a brown and red color; Main localities: Brazil, India, Russia; Other localities: USA, Japan, Tanzania

axinite
borosilicate; brownish, sometimes yellow or purple; owes its name to the ancient Greek word axine = axe, because it occurs in sharp-edged, axe-shaped crystals; brittle and rarely flawless, therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing; Locations: USA, Mexico, England, France, Sri Lanka

Azurite
Copper hydroxyl carbonate; azure blue, often occurs in combination with malachite; Localities: Australia, Chile, Africa, China; Stones from Chessy, France are called chessylite

B

Baguette
For watches: longitudinal shape of movement and case with an aspect ratio of at least 1:3; Popular with women's watches in the 1920s, back in fashion today. Or a rectangular gemstone cut with straight side edges

Bajonet catch
Connection of two elements with a sliding pin or knob

Barometer
With integrated mercury barometer; uses the changing air pressure to wind up the mainspring and therefore does not require any additional energy

barite
barium sulfate; comes in different colors: white, yellow and blue; very soft and brittle, therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing; Locations: England, Romania, Germany, USA, Italy

benitoite
barium titanium silicate; known since 1906 mostly in blue coloration; only locality: California

rock crystal
silicon dioxide; the colorless, transparent rock crystal is the most widespread, purest form of quartz; the name derives from the Greek krystallos (= ice), because rock crystal was thought to be ice created by the gods; Rock crystals are found all over the world; most important locality: Brazil

Amber
Fossil tree sap; golden yellow or golden orange in colour; Translucent to translucent, often with encased plant or animal remains to whole insects; its name comes from its flammability (formerly: Brennstein); the most famous sites are in the Baltic States; Amber from Burma is called birmit; Stones from Sicily are called Simetites; Other localities: Dominican Republic, Mexico, Germany, Romania, Canada

beryl, red
beryllium aluminum silicate; in red (due to the manganese content) very rare; also called Bixbit; Location: USA

beryllium
Natural metal contained in beryl; as a proportion of metal alloys, it increases hardness and elasticity

beryllonite
sodium beryllium phosphate; colourless, white or pale yellow; very brittle and therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing; Locations: USA, Finland, Zimbabwe

Bicolor
Bicolor

Birmite
See Amber

Bixmit
See red beryl

Leaf spring
See spring

Bloodstone
See Hematite

Bonamite
See Smithsonite

Boston chain
Compact chain shape with narrow, angular links that interlock alternately lengthwise and crosswise; striking mesh pattern

bowenite
See serpentine

brasilianite
aluminum sodium hydroxyl phosphate; very rare, yellow-green to lemon-yellow in colour; named after Brazil, the most important locality; very brittle and therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing

Brilliant cut
Fine cut for round shapes with 1 table surface and 56 fine surfaces

Britannia Silver
See Silver

Bronze
Copper and tin alloy; very corrosion resistant, elastic and easy to cast; is often combined with other metals (e.g. aluminum) to achieve certain degrees of hardness or elasticity

Bronzite
See Hypersthene

C

cabochon
semi- or full-spherical gemstone (=shape designation)

Calcite (calcite)
Calcium carbonate; colorless or milky white and very soft; Main component of limestone and marble; also found in combination with other minerals; Main locality: Italy; colorless rhombuses are called iceland spar; pink and green crystals are also found in the USA, Germany and France

Californite
See Vesuvian

cerussite
lead carbonate; mostly colorless, sometimes also white, gray or black; very soft, therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing; Main locality: Namibia; Other localities: Austria, Australia, USA, Germany, Scotland

Chessylite
See azurite

Chrome
Very hard, brittle and heat-resistant white metal; often becomes used to coat metal objects, e.g. wristwatches; see also chrome plating

Chronograph
Watch with additional mechanism for short-term measurements (stopwatch), which are indicated by an additional chrono hand

Chronograph rattrapante
Watch with two chronograph movements and superimposed chronograph hands; allows the measurement of intermediate times. While one hand can be stopped to record the split time, the second hand keeps running. The stopped pointer can then be unlocked to catch up (jump) with its partner. This process can be repeated as often as you like.

Chronology
Doctrine of time, science of measuring and dividing up time; Time science.

Chronomatic
Artificial word for chronograph with automatic winding; see also automatic watch

Chronometer
Original term for very accurate clocks; today term for precision watches that have been tested at an official test center and have not exceeded the specified limit values

chrysoberyl
beryllium aluminum oxide; yellow-green or yellow-brown in colour; Variants: alexandrite and cat's eye, show up green in daylight, red, violet or brown in artificial light; the cat's eye also has almost white lines of light on the yellow-grey stone; Main locality: Russia; Other localities: Sri Lanka, Burma, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Madagascar

Chrysocolla
Copper silicate containing hydrate; light green or blue-green; crystals intergrown with quartz or opal are mostly used for jewelry; Locations: Chile, Zaire

Chrysoprase/Prasem
Intense green color, already very popular in ancient Greece and Rome; since 1965 the best chrysoprase has come from Queensland (Australia); other localities: Russia, California, Brazil, Austria; the emerald quartz Prasem is dark green and rare

citrine (quartz)
silicon dioxide; heat-treated amethyst, which owes its name to its lemon yellow color; natural citrines are rare. A difference between a naturally found or a "burnt amethyst" cannot be determined.

celestine
strontium sulfate; forms colorless, milky white, yellow, orange, or pale blue crystals; extremely sensitive and therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing; Localities: Namibia, Madagascar, Italy, England, USA, Canada

cord chain
chain shape with two individual cords wrapped very tightly around each other

corderite (ioilite)
magnesium aluminum silicate; violet blue, also called water sapphire because of its resemblance to blue sapphire; however, the stone can appear colorless from the side; Localities: Sri Lanka, Burma, Madagascar, India, Tanzania

Curvex
Coveted rectangular shape around 1930, mainly used for ladies' watches; very slim, slightly curved shape that is adapted to the wrist

Cyprin
See Vesuvian

D

danburite
calcium borosilicate; colorless, but also yellow and pink; very similar to colorless topaz, distinguishable from it only by cleavage and weight; Locations: USA, Burma, Mexico, Switzerland, Italy, Japan

datolite
calcium hydroxyl boron silicate; mostly transparent and almost colorless, sometimes with a slight yellow or gr unfavorable unsuitable for jewelry processing; Locations: Austria, Italy, Norway, USA, Germany, England

Date display
Additional function for displaying the date, partly also with weekday display / year / month / day.

date line
The 180th degree of longitude; time east of this boundary is 1 hour behind, time west is 1 hour ahead

cover glass
See watch glass

demantoid
See andradite

German armored chain, upright
Simple, no-frills chain shape with individual links arranged close together; compact stitch pattern

German armored chain
Simple, no-frills chain shape with clearly visible individual links that loosely interlock; open stitch pattern

diamond
pure carbon; the hardest mineral material on earth; since diamonds consist of pure carbon, they have a very regular crystal structure; Flawless, colorless diamonds are extremely rare, the majority having a slight tint and more or less obvious inclusions; Localities: Australia, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Zaire, Botswana, Namibia, USA, Brazil; the value of a diamond is measured according to four C-criteria: color (colour), cut (cut), clarity (purity), carat (weight) and its scarcity.

Digital display
Form of representation of the time with digits/dots in a dial section (window); does not need a pointer.

diopsid
calcium magnesium silicate; green, possibly also colourless; bright green diopside with chromium as the coloring substance is called chromium diopside; violet-blue crystals with coloring manganese are also called violane; Violan is found in Italy and the USA: chromium diopside is found in Burma, Siberia, Pakistan and South Africa; Other localities: Austria, Brazil, Italy, USA, Madagascar, Canada, Sri Lanka

Dioptase
Copper silicate containing hydrate; shines in a slightly bluish emerald green; sometimes confused with emerald; Locations: Russia, Namibia, Zaire, Chile, Arizona

Direct winding
Special type of crown winding; the mainspring is wound around the winding stem e.g. in wall clocks / table clocks / alarm clocks.

Display
English: show, display; is also used today for the digital display of electronic clocks. Numbers, letters and symbols can be displayed.

Dolomite
Magnesium and calcium carbonate; colorless, white, pink, or yellow; very soft and therefore only conditionally suitable for jewelry processing; Locations: Italy, Switzerland, Germany, USA

Double anchor chain
Rough link chain form with multiple links; uneven, busy mesh structure

Double anchor chain, pressed
Chain shape with narrow links arranged diagonally next to each other; even mesh structure

Double anchor chain, twisted
Chain shape with two individual straps wrapped around each other

double chronograph
watch with two chronograph mechanisms that work more or less independently of each other; can be used to measure different short times

Double chronometer
Chronometer with two independent movements (and dials) in a common case, which affect each other physically, i.e. their minor irregularities balance each other

Double pan Zerkette
lush chain shape, in which two times two links interlock; resulting in an uneven, lively stitch pattern

Doublé
Gold plating, given in microns; 10 microns = 1/1000 millimeters

dravite (tourmaline)
borosilicate; very dark, yellow-brown to brown tourmaline, rich in magnesium; Locations: Sri Lanka, USA, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Australia

pusher
push pin, for a specific function in the watch, e.g. stopwatch on the chronograph; is usually located on the side of the housing

dumortierite
aluminum iron borosilicate; Colour: violet-blue with a coarse character; named after French paleontologist M.E. Dumortier; sometimes interspersed with rock crystal - it is then called dumortierite quartz; high-quality stones can be found in Nevada (USA); Other localities: France, Madagascar, Norway, Sri Lanka, Canada, Poland, Namibia, Italy

E

Precious metals
Metals that are air-resistant, corrosion-resistant and acid-resistant; precious metals include gold, silver, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum. These are alloyed (mixed with other metals) to make jewelry, which partially weakens the properties of precious metals.

Inserted anchor chain
Chain shape with very narrow links, which alternately interlock transversely and longitudinally; rather loose mesh structure

Iron
Heavy metal, occurs naturally as iron ore; Pure iron can hardly be used because of its low hardness and only becomes steel with additives such as carbon

Electrolysis
Decomposition of an element using electricity; is used e.g. in the separation of solid metals such as copper, gold and silver from the solutions of the metal salts

Electromechanical watch
Works with a conventional balance-spring-oscillating system, but which is electrically driven

Electronic clock
clock in which electrical energy (e.g. from the battery) is used without contact via electronic components (e.g. transistors) to generate a to supply electronic circuit with energy. In contrast to the clock with a mechanical gear regulator (pendulum / balance wheel), the electronics take over the gear regulation here and the hands are moved by a motor.

Electrum
See Silver

Electric clock
Only works with battery or mains

Elementary clocks
General term for all clocks that work with natural elements (e.g. sundial, hourglass, water clock, etc.)

Ivory
Elephant tusks, but also hippopotamus, wild boar, warthog, sperm whale, walrus, sea lion and narwhal teeth; popular for its creamy color and easy workability; particularly beautiful ivory comes from African elephants; may no longer be traded today due to animal welfare

Enamel
Flaze of quartz sand, fluorspar, borax, soda and lead oxide, colored with metal oxide pigments; Often used to decorate wristwatch cases and dials, but also used in the jewelry industry

Enamel watches
Pocket watches whose cases (possibly also dials) are decorated with enamel paintings

enstatite
magnesium iron silicate; grey-green, yellow-green or olive-green in colour; brown-green enstatite is found in Burma, California and Norway; Other localities: Sri Lanka, India, USA, Switzerland, Greece, Scotland, Japan

epidote
calcium aluminum iron hydroxyl silicate; yellow, green or dark brown crystals that are very brittle; a dark red epidote is called piemontite - named after the place where it was found, Piemont; dark green crystals are found in the Austrian or French Alps; Epidote is also found in Italy, Mozambique, and Mexico

pea chain
Chain shape with small, flattened and spherical links that interlock alternately lengthwise and crosswise; tight mesh structure.

Euklas
beryllium aluminum hydroxyl silicate; white, green, blue or colorless; most desirable in pale blue; very sensitive and therefore only conditionally suitable for jewelry processing; Localities: Brazil, Tanzania, Zaire, Kenya, India, Zimbabwe, USA

Perpetual calendar
For mechanical watches, the most complex calendar mechanism with moon age and moon phase display; also takes into account the different lengths of the months and leap years. Extremely rare version.

F

facet cut
surface treatment to bring out the stone-specific brilliance; the number of facets always depends on the stone - diamond and sapphire, for example, come into their own with a brilliant cut, while the less complex step cut may be suitable for a garnet

Hawk Eye
See Tiger Eye

False braid chain
Chain shape with double links; braid-like mesh structure

color name B
Brown; denotes a brown tint (diamond quality)

Cape color name
Cape; denotes a slightly yellowish tint (diamond quality)

color designation CR
Crystal; denotes slightly tinted white (diamond quality)

Fancy color designation
Denotes a fancy color (diamond quality)

color designation LB
Light brown; denotes a faint brown (diamond quality)

Colour name LY
Light Yellow; denotes a faint yellow (diamond quality)

color designation R
River; denotes very fine white (diamond quality)

color code TCA
top cape; denotes tinted white (diamond quality)

TCR color name
Top Crystal; denotes slightly tinted white (diamond quality)

color designation TW
Top Wesselton; denotes fine white (diamond quality)

Color designation VFLB
Very finest light brown; denotes a very fine, very faint brown (diamond quality)

Color designation VLB
Very light brown; denotes a faint brown tint (diamond quality)

color designation VVLB
Very very light brown; denotes a very faint brown tint (diamond quality)

color designation W
Wesselton; denotes white (diamond quality)

Color name Y
Yellow; denotes a yellow coloring (diamond quality)

Spring
Elastic element made of metal that supplies the power for the movement; a distinction is made between train and d mainspring, spiral spring and leaf spring; Tension and mainspring: Coiled steel or chromium-nickel-cobalt alloy; Spiral spring: Spring bent in a spiral shape, either flat (= flat spring) or cylindrical

Fortress Agate
See Agate

fire agate (chalcedony)
silica; Type of quartz with a characteristic rainbow effect, caused by inclusions of iron oxide platelets; Locations: Arizona, Mexico

Foxtail chain
Chain shape in which two links grip the next pair of links on one side and enclose the next pair of links on the other side ; as a result, each pair of links appears triangular; tight mesh

Foxtail chain, twisted
Chain shape with intertwined double links that are twisted again

Figaro anchor chain
Rough-link chain shape with narrow, oval links that interlock alternately lengthwise and crosswise; small and large limbs in alternation; very open mesh structure

Figaro curb chain
Particularly coarse-linked chain form, in which small and large links interlock alternately; open stitch pattern

Herringbone necklace
Chain shape with closely spaced, S-shaped, flattened links; compact stitch pattern

Flat anchor chain
Coarse-link chain shape with flat links that interlock alternately from above and from the side; open stitch pattern

Flat curb chain
Solid-looking, rather coarse-linked chain shape with clearly visible individual links, flat shape; open stitch pattern

Flat curb chain, square
Solid-looking, rather coarse-linked chain shape with individual links lined up close together, flat, very compact shape; very tight mesh

Fliegeruhr
Clock developed during the Second World War in (then) oversized (approximately pocket watch format), with precision movement, mostly with luminous numerals and hands as well as second hand with stop function; additional long, robust bracelet that can be worn over the outfit; also provided with a soft iron inner case that protects the movement from magnetism

flourite
calcium fluoride; has a very wide range of colors: yellow, blue, pink, violet and green; Localities: Canada, USA, South Africa, Thailand, Peru, Mexico, China, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Norway, England, Germany

Radio controlled clock
Electronic clock controlled by radio signals

930 x 520px

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