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Avalon Deluxe Jewelry Dictionary: Letters N-S

by Emanuel Baumann 01 Jan 2023
Letters N-S

Napo Chain
See Cobra Chain

Navette
See Marquise

Nephrite (jade)
Calcium magnesium iron silicate, part of the jade stone; the color palette ranges from cream to dark green; Main locality: Burma; Other localities: Siberia, China, New Zealand, Australia, USA, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Taiwan, Zimbabwe, Italy, Poland, Germany, Switzerland

New gold
Light yellow, inferior alloy of copper, zinc, tin and lead

German silver
Silver-like (purely optical) alloy of copper, zinc and nickel.

Nickel
Silver-colored, tough, non-oxidizing metal that is mainly found in alloys and has been in jewelry and watches for many years due to its allergenic potential is prohibited once it is measurably released upon use.

nickel steel
alloy of iron or steel (- see also iron) and nickel

standard time
The time specified for a specific country, which corresponds to the respective zone time, e.g. B CET

Prime Meridian
Runs through point placed at Greenwich near London, starting point for all lines of longitude east and west of it.

O

obsidian
silicon dioxide; natural glass, mostly dark brown to black; sometimes with a metallic sheen due to inclusions of gas or crystals; Localities: Hawaii, Japan, Iceland, Hungary, Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Arizona

oligoclase
sodium calcium aluminum silica; reddish-brownish with a metallic shimmer due to the inclusion of small metal plates; Locations: Norway, USA, India, Canada

Onyx
Onyx is an opaque black to slightly translucent variety of chalcedony, which in turn is a variety of the mineral quartz; Localities for onyx and sardonyx include Yemen, Brazil, Madagascar, Mexico, Pakistan, Uruguay and the USA.

Opaque
Fr. : opaque = opaque, opaque

oscillator
Lat. oscillare = to swing; Mechanism for generating electrical or mechanical vibrations; the combination of balance wheel and hairspring as well as the combination of quartz and electronics is an oscillator.

P

Padparadscha (corundum)
aluminum oxide; extremely rare pink-orange sapphire; the name is based on the Sinhalese word for lotus flower; Location: Sri Lanka

Palladium
Silver-colored, very hard precious metal that belongs to the platinum metals; constant temperature, non-oxidizing and antimagnetic; is used as an alloying metal for white gold and platinum

curb chain, inserted
coarse chain shape with elongated double links; open stitch pattern

tank track, Austrian
See Austrian tank track

Tank track, Russian
See Russian tank track

Courmet chain, filed square
Solid-looking, coarse-linked chain shape with clearly visible individual links, angular shape; compact stitch pattern

patina
Age-related thin oxide layer, e.g. B on a metal, which is natural to the extent that is not perceived as disturbing and gives the piece a noble "antique" character; acts as protection for the underlying metal and can have a similar effect e.g. T artificially generated to give the above impression.

peridot (olivine)
magnesium iron silicate; olive green or bottle green in color with a vitreous to greasy sheen; high quality crystals are rare, localities: egypt, china, brazil, burma, hawaii, arizona, australia, south africa, norway

Pearl
Pearls form in shellfish such as oysters to protect them from foreign objects. These are surrounded with mother-of-pearl. In the case of cultured pearls, a prepared pearl core is placed in the shell, which then encloses the animal with mother-of-pearl excretions, thereby “allowing it to grow”; Pearls are often pure white with a slight tint, often pink; they are sensitive to acids, dryness and moisture and are therefore less durable than most other gemstones; real pearls, created without human influence, are found in the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea; Cultured pearl areas are the coasts of Polynesia and Australia - but primarily China and Japan.

mother of pearl
calcium carbonate; the inside of sea shells, oysters and conch shells; the most beautiful mother-of-pearl inner layers have large sea pearl oysters, abalone and gyroscope shells; they are found in the coastal waters of the USA and New Zealand

petalite
lithium aluminum silicate; transparent and mostly colourless, looks like glass; very rare and very sensitive and therefore not suitable for jewelry processing; Localities: Elba, Brazil, Australia, Sweden, Finland, USA, Zimbabwe, Namibia

phenakite
beryllium silicate; occurs as a white or colorless crystal; is often confused with rock crystal, but differs from it in the frequent formation of twins; the most beautiful crystals come from Russia, Brazil and Colorado (USA); Other localities: Italy, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Namibia

phosphophyllite
hydrated zinc phosphate; one of the rarest gemstones, blue-green, sometimes colorless; very brittle and therefore sensitive; Main locality: Bolivia; Other localities: Germany, New Hampshire (USA)

Piemontite
See epidote

Plaqué
“plating”; gilding on a metal with a thickness varying from 0.5 to 3 microns, depending on the product; is often used for very simple watch cases up to 20 microns and more for high-quality cases or pieces of jewellery. The layer thickness is directly related to the durability of the gilding.

plasma
See heliotrope

Platinum
Heavy, off-white, non-oxidizing precious metal; chemical element that forms in igneous rocks and is present in the form of grains and the like. a occurs in river sands and gravel heaps; Main localities: South Africa, Canada, USA, Russia, Australia, Colombia, Peru; Platinum is the rarest and most expensive of the three precious metals; it is slightly heavier than gold and almost twice as heavy as silver

Plexiglas
synthetic resin mixture, artificial glass; more elastic and easier to work with than real glass, but also less scratch-resistant

p. m
See a. m

precision watch
General term for a watch with particular accuracy

prehnite
calcium aluminum hydroxyl silicate; owes its name to the Dutch officer van Prehn, who brought it to Europe; often olive green, but also pale yellow to brown; pale green stones are found in Scotland, dark green and brown in Australia

Princess Blue
See Sodalite

pulse meter
heart rate monitor; stopwatch to measure heart rate; Pulse beats per minute

are displayed

Heart rate counter
Dial scale on chronographs to measure heart rate

pyrite
iron sulfide; is often confused with gold because of its brass color - hence the name fool's gold; it is often made into costume jewellery; Locations: Spain, Peru, Italy, France

pyrope (garnet)
magnesium aluminum silicate; Pyrope means fiery in Greek; what we call garnet is either pyrope or almandine; it is blood red due to its iron and chromium content; Localities: Arizona, South Africa, Australia, Brazil, Burma, Scotland, Switzerland, Tanzania

Q

Quartz
Engl. and French : Quartz

quartz
z. B rock crystal; Colorless in its pure form, it becomes a glass-like substance when it is melted, which was used in the manufacture of watch glasses and optical glasses and e.g. T still serves.

Quartz watch
Works with oscillating tuning fork-shaped silicon quartz crystal that is synthetically manufactured. An oscillator stimulates it to oscillate at a high frequency and almost constantly; electrical impulses (piezo effect) are generated by its vibration itself and can be counted. This very constant number of pulses now regulates the frequency of the output pulse from the electronics; exceeds the accuracy of mechanical wheel clocks by a factor of 30-500.

Mercury
Liquid, silver-white metal with the ability to expand extremely, depending on the temperature; reacts extremely sensitively to temperature changes and is therefore still used today for temperature measurements, although it is very toxic.

R

wheel clock
General term for a weight or spring-operated clock with a mechanical escapement

smoky quartz
silicon dioxide; from brown to black-brown in color, produced when colorless quartz is radioactively irradiated (e.g. B by underground radioactivity); pieces weighing up to 300 kg were found in Brazil; Other localities: Madagascar, Spain, Alps, Colorado (USA), Australia

Purity IF (lr)
Internally flawless : flawless); Designation for a flawless diamond

clarity P1
Pique 1; Designation for a diamond with clear inclusions

clarity P2
Pique 2; Designation for a diamond with large inclusions

clarity P3
pique 3; Designation for a diamond with coarse inclusions

purity SI
small inclusions : small inclusions); Designation for a diamond with small inclusions

Purity VS
Very small inclusions : very small inclusions); Designation for a diamond with very small inclusions

Purity VVS
Very very small inclusions : microscopic inclusions); Term for a diamond with microscopic inclusions

Rhodium
Hard, very malleable, non-oxidizing noble metal; silver colored; has similar properties as a platinum minor metal and is similarly rare and valuable.

rhodochrosite
manganese carbonate; reddish due to manganese deposits; occurs in combination with manganese, copper, silver and lead; the oldest mines are in Argentina - rhodochrosite is also called inca rose there; today's main locality: USA

rhodonite
manganese silicate; intense pink color, also very popular with black veins; mostly opaque, translucent crystals are rare; its name derives from the Greek word for rose; Localities: Russia, Sweden, Australia, Brazil, Mexico, USA, Canada, Italy, India, Madagascar, South Africa, Japan, New Zealand, England

Ring size
See ring gauge

Ring gauge
Artificial measure to determine the inner diameter of the required size of a finger ring; the range of sizes goes from 46 to 66; Ring size 46 corresponds to an inner diameter of 14.5 mm; 66 equals 21mm; The German ring gauge is divided into 0.5 1 mm increments and refers to the circumference. The international ring gauge refers to the diameter. Conversion: Circumference divided by 3.14 = ring diameter.

Letters N-S

Napo Chain
See Cobra Chain

Navette
See Marquise

Nephrite (jade)
Calcium magnesium iron silicate, part of the jade stone; the color palette ranges from cream to dark green; Main locality: Burma; Other localities: Siberia, China, New Zealand, Australia, USA, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Taiwan, Zimbabwe, Italy, Poland, Germany, Switzerland

New gold
Light yellow, inferior alloy of copper, zinc, tin and lead

German silver
Silver-like (purely optical) alloy made of copper, zinc and nickel.

Nickel
Silver-colored, tough, non-oxidizing metal that is mainly found in alloys and has been in jewelry and watches for many years due to its allergenic potential is prohibited once it is measurably released upon use.

Nickel steel
Alloy made of iron or steel (- see also iron) and nickel

standard time
The time specified for a specific country, which corresponds to the respective zone time, e.g. CET

Prime Meridian
Runs through point placed at Greenwich near London, the starting point is a straight line of longitude to the east and west of it.

O

obsidian
silicon dioxide; natural glass, mostly dark brown to black; sometimes with a metallic sheen due to inclusions of gas or crystals; Localities: Hawaii, Japan, Iceland, Hungary, Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Arizona

oligoclase
sodium calcium aluminum silica; reddish-brownish with a metallic shimmer due to the inclusion of small metal plates; Locations: Norway, USA, India, Canada

Onyx
Onyx is an opaque black to slightly translucent variety of chalcedony, which in turn is a variety of the mineral quartz; Localities for onyx and sardonyx include Yemen, Brazil, Madagascar, Mexico, Pakistan, Uruguay and the USA.

Opaque
French: opaque = opaque, impermeable to light

oscillator
Lat. oscillare = to swing; Mechanism for generating electrical or mechanical vibrations; the combination of balance wheel and hairspring as well as the combination of quartz and electronics is an oscillator.

P

Padparadscha (corundum)
aluminum oxide; extremely rare pink-orange sapphire; the name is based on the Sinhalese word for lotus flower; Location: Sri Lanka

Palladium
Silver-colored, very hard precious metal that belongs to the platinum metals; constant temperature, non-oxidizing and antimagnetic; is used as an alloying metal for white gold and platinum

curb chain, inserted
coarse chain shape with elongated double links; open stitch pattern

tank track, Austrian
See Austrian tank track

Tank track, Russian
See Russian tank track

Courmet chain, filed square
Solid-looking, coarse-linked chain shape with clearly visible individual links, angular shape; compact stitch pattern

Patina
Age-related thin oxide cht e.g. on a metal, which has arisen naturally to the extent that it is not perceived as disturbing and gives the piece a noble "antique" character; acts as a protection for the underlying metal and can be created artificially to give the above impression with a similar effect.

peridot (olivine)
magnesium iron silicate; olive green or bottle green in color with a vitreous to greasy sheen; high quality crystals are rare, localities: egypt, china, brazil, burma, hawaii, arizona, australia, south africa, norway

Pearl
Pearls form in shellfish such as oysters to protect them from foreign objects. These are surrounded with mother-of-pearl. In the case of cultured pearls, a prepared pearl core is placed in the shell, which then encloses the animal with mother-of-pearl excretions, thereby “allowing it to grow”; Pearls are often pure white with a slight tint, often pink; they are sensitive to acids, dryness and moisture and are therefore less durable than most other gemstones; real pearls, created without human influence, are found in the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea; Cultured pearl areas are the coasts of Polynesia and Australia - but primarily China and Japan.

mother of pearl
calcium carbonate; the inside of sea shells, oysters and conch shells; the most beautiful mother-of-pearl inner layers have large sea pearl oysters, abalone and gyroscope shells; they are found in the coastal waters of the USA and New Zealand

petalite
lithium aluminum silicate; transparent and mostly colourless, looks like glass; very rare and very sensitive and therefore not suitable for jewelry processing; Localities: Elba, Brazil, Australia, Sweden, Finland, USA, Zimbabwe, Namibia

phenakite
beryllium silicate; occurs as a white or colorless crystal; is often confused with rock crystal, but differs from it in the frequent formation of twins; the most beautiful crystals come from Russia, Brazil and Colorado (USA); Other localities: Italy, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Namibia

phosphophyllite
hydrated zinc phosphate; one of the rarest gemstones, blue-green, sometimes colorless; very brittle and therefore sensitive; Main locality: Bolivia; Other localities: Germany, New Hampshire (USA)

Piemontite
See epidote

Plaqué
“plating”; gilding on a metal with a thickness varying from 0.5 to 3 microns, depending on the product; is often used for very simple watch cases up to 20 microns and more for high-quality cases or pieces of jewellery. The layer thickness is directly related to the durability of the gilding.

plasma
See heliotrope

Platinum
Heavy, off-white, non-oxidizing precious metal; chemical element that forms in igneous rocks and occurs in the form of grains in river sands and gravel heaps, among other things; Main localities: South Africa, Canada, USA, Russia, Australia, Colombia, Peru; Platinum is the rarest and most expensive of the three precious metals; it is slightly heavier than gold and almost twice as heavy as silver

Plexiglas
synthetic resin mixture, artificial glass; more elastic and easier to work with than real glass, but also less scratch-resistant

p.m.
See a.m.

precision watch
General term for a watch with particular accuracy

prehnite
calcium aluminum hydroxyl silicate; owes its name d em Dutch officer van Prehn who brought him to Europe; often olive green, but also pale yellow to brown; pale green stones are found in Scotland, dark green and brown in Australia

Princess Blue
See Sodalite

pulse meter
heart rate monitor; stopwatch to measure heart rate; Pulse beats per minute

are displayed

Heart rate counter
Dial scale on chronographs to measure heart rate

pyrite
iron sulfide; is often confused with gold because of its brass color - hence the name fool's gold; it is often made into costume jewellery; Locations: Spain, Peru, Italy, France

pyrope (garnet)
magnesium aluminum silicate; Pyrope means fiery in Greek; what we call garnet is either pyrope or almandine; it is blood red due to its iron and chromium content; Localities: Arizona, South Africa, Australia, Brazil, Burma, Scotland, Switzerland, Tanzania

Q

Quartz
Engl. and French: Quartz

quartz
z. B. rock crystal; colorless in its pure form, when melted it becomes a glass-like substance that was and is still used in the manufacture of watch glasses and optical glasses.

Quartz watch
Works with oscillating tuning fork-shaped silicon quartz crystal that is synthetically manufactured. An oscillator stimulates it to oscillate at a high frequency and almost constantly; electrical impulses (piezo effect) are generated by its vibration itself and can be counted. This very constant number of pulses now regulates the frequency of the output pulse from the electronics; exceeds the accuracy of mechanical wheel clocks by a factor of 30-500.

Mercury
Liquid, silver-white metal with the ability to expand extremely, depending on the temperature; reacts extremely sensitively to temperature changes and is therefore still used today for temperature measurements, although it is very poisonous.

R

wheel clock
General term for a weight or spring-operated clock with a mechanical escapement

smoky quartz
silicon dioxide; brown to black-brown in color, produced when colorless quartz is radioactively irradiated (e.g., by underground radioactivity); pieces weighing up to 300 kg were found in Brazil; Other localities: Madagascar, Spain, Alps, Colorado (USA), Australia

Purity IF (lr)
Internally flawless; Designation for a flawless diamond

clarity P1
Pique 1; Designation for a diamond with clear inclusions

clarity P2
Pique 2; Designation for a diamond with large inclusions

clarity P3
pique 3; Designation for a diamond with coarse inclusions

purity SI
Small inclusions; Designation for a diamond with small inclusions

clarity VS
Very small inclusions; Designation for a diamond with very small inclusions

Purity VVS
Very very small inclusions; Term for a diamond with microscopic inclusions

Rhodium
Hard, very malleable, non-oxidizing noble metal; silver colored; has similar properties as a platinum minor metal and is similarly rare and valuable.

rhodochrosite
manganese carbonate; reddish due to manganese deposits; occurs in combination with manganese, copper, silver and lead; the oldest mines are in Argentina - rhodochrosite is also called inca rose there; today's main locality: USA

rhodonite
manganese silicate; intense pink color, also very popular with black veins; mostly opaque, translucent crystals are rare; its name derives from the Greek word for rose; Localities: Russia, Sweden, Australia, Brazil, Mexico, USA, Canada, Italy, India, Madagascar, South Africa, Japan, New Zealand, England

Ring size
See ring gauge

Ring gauge
Artificial measure to determine the inner diameter of the required size of a finger ring; the range of sizes goes from 46 to 66; Ring size 46 corresponds to an inner diameter of 14.5 mm; 66 equals 21mm; The German ring gauge is divided into 0.5 1 mm increments and refers to the circumference. The international ring gauge refers to the diameter. Conversion: Circumference divided by 3.14= ring diameter.

Ring size
See ring gauge

rose quartz
silicon dioxide; of a delicate pink coloration, which is due to a low titanium content; due to its brittleness, rose quartz is almost always cloudy and cracked; Locations: Brazil, Madagascar, Scotland, Colorado (USA), Spain

Rosolite
See Grossular, pink

Red gold
Alloy of gold, copper and silver; the copper content determines the intensity of the red tone; little copper = rose gold

rubellite (tourmaline)
borosilicate; Red tourmaline - the Latin name rubellite means red; Localities: Russia, Madagascar, the USA, Burma, East Africa

Rubicelle
See Spinel

ruby (corundum)
aluminum oxide; depending on the chromium and iron content, shows the most varied shades of red; partly with streaky color distribution, which arises from the formation of new layers; similarly hard as the diamond; the best qualities come from Burma; Other localities: Thailand, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Vietnam, India, North Carolina, Russia, Australia, Norway

Round anchor chain
Coarse chain shape with oval links that interlock alternately lengthwise and crosswise; open stitch pattern

Round curb chain
Solid-looking, rather coarse-linked chain shape with clearly visible individual links, round shape, compact mesh structure

Round curb chain, upright
Solid-looking, rather coarse-linked chain shape with individual links arranged close together, round, very compact shape; compact stitch pattern

Russian curb chain
Chain shape with double links that are closely but flexibly lined up; rather open stitch pattern

rutile
titanium oxide; has more fire than a diamond but is swallowed up by the red, brown, or black hue; the best known is the red-brown rutile; Locations: Australia, Brazil, USA, Italy, Mexico, Norway

S

sapphire (corundum)
aluminum oxide; all non-red gem-quality corundums are called sahpir, but are associated with mi t this name generally only the blue type; coloring substances are iron and titanium, which also determine the color intensity; valuable sapphires are mined in Burma, Sri Lanka and India; other localities: Thailand, Australia, Nigeria; metallic blue stones are from Montana (USA); Other localities: Cambodia, Brazil, Kenya, Malawi, Colombia

sapphire, colorless (corundum)
aluminum oxide; corundum without color deposits, very rare; colorless and milky-white stones are found in Sri Lanka; the latter are also called Geuda; heating Geuda turns blue

sapphire, yellow (corundum)
aluminum oxide; yellow or yellow-green corundum; Localities: Australia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Montana (USA), East Africa

Sapphire glass
Watch glass made of synthetic sapphire, very hard and correspondingly scratch-resistant

sapphire, green (corundum)
aluminum oxide; mostly compositions of very thin bands of blue and yellow sapphire appearing intense green; Locations: Thailand, Sri Lanka, Australia

Sapphire, pink (corundum)
Aluminum oxide; owes its color to low chrome deposits; Traces of iron produce a pink-orange coloration, iron and titanium a violet color; Locations: Sri Lanka, Burma, East Africa

Sarder
See Onyx

Sard Onyx
See Onyx

scheelite
calcium tungstate; very soft and of the most varied color nuances: white-yellow, yellow, brown-yellow, brown; Locations: Australia, Italy, Switzerland, Sri Lanka, Finland, France, England

Ship's anchor chain
Chain shape with solid, oval links that have two holes and are connected to each other by small connecting links

tortoise shell
calcium carbonate; detached horny plates of the dorsal and ventral shields of the hawksbill turtle shell; may no longer be traded today due to species protection

Snake chain
Very compact chain shape with links placed close together and hardly recognizable individually

Snail shell chain
Rough-link chain form, in which two large links are connected to each other and by another, small one; open stitch pattern

Schörl (tourmaline)
boron silicate; black, very iron-rich tourmaline, which occurs almost exclusively in pegmatia

vibration frequency
vibration number; Number of oscillations in a unit of time, with mechanical watches the balance frequency is measured in semi-oscillations per hour.

Semiround
Description for pearl type: slightly drop-shaped with a smooth, even surface

serpentine
magnesium hydroxyl silicate; Group of predominantly green minerals, two of which are primarily used in jewelry: the translucent green or blue-green bowenite and the mottled williamsite with a greasy sheen; Bowenite is found in New Zealand, China, Afghanistan, South Africa and the USA, williamsite in Italy, England and China

SG = Specific gravity
Weight of a stone that depends on its density; The basis is a comparison with the volume of the water; the greater the specific gravity, the heavier the stone

Shock-resistant
English: shock-resistant; a watch that is shock-resistant is equipped with a shock-safety system in which crucial parts of the movement are spring-loaded. Sorrow however, there is no guarantee against damage from impact/fall.

Silver
Shiny white, very malleable and conductive precious metal, usually found in the form of crystals or grains; most silver is a by-product of lead mining; the most important silver mines are in South America, the USA and Australia; since silver is very soft, it is often alloyed with other metals; Electrum, a gold-silver alloy known to the ancient Greeks, contains 20-25% silver; Sterling silver is 92.5% (925/1000) or more, Britannia silver is 95% pure silver

sillimanite
aluminum silicate; named after the American mineralogist Silliman; blue to green; blue and violet stones come from Burma, grey-green from Sri Lanka; Other localities: India, Italy, Germany, Brazil

Simetit
See Amber

scapolite
silicate mixture; after the German geologist A.G. Werner also called Wernerite; occurs in different color shades: pink, violet, blue, yellow, gray; also colorless; some pink and purple cat's eye pebbles; Localities: Brazil, Burma, Madagascar, Kenya, Canada

Skeleton clock
Partially glazed to reveal the movement. With a skeletonized movement, the part of the main plate that is not absolutely necessary for the function is removed by hand. In connection with a glass back and possibly also a skeletonized dial, fascinating insights into the function of the movement are obtained.

emerald (beryl)
beryllium aluminum silicate; is known for its intense green; it is rich in chromium and vanadium and seldom flawless, which is why most stones are oiled; the most beautiful emeralds come from Colombia; Other localities: Austria, India, Australia, Brazil, South Africa, Egypt, USA, Norway, Palistan, Zimbabwe

Emerald cut
Rectangular or square gemstone cut with step-like cut to the sides

Smithsonite (zinc spar)
zinc carbonate; frothy white with blue-green or green layers; also referred to as bonamite; pink due to cobalt content and yellow due to cadmium content; colorless crystals are found in Namibia and Zambia, blue-green in the US, Spain and Greece, yellow in the US and Sardinia

sodalite
sodium aluminum silicate; occurs in all possible shades of blue and is an essential component of lapis lazuli; the most important site is Bancroft in Ontario (Canada), where sodalite deposits were discovered during a visit by the English Princess Margret; the sodalite from Bancroft is therefore also called Princess Blue; Other localities: Brazil, Canada, India, Namibia, USA

Sundial
One of the oldest elementary clocks, showing the local time on a scale e.g. with the help of the shadow of a stick; this shadow changes according to the changing position of sun and earth in relation to each other = it becomes longer or shorter and wanders.

S-curved chain (Irrgang)
Compact chain shape with S-shaped links arranged close together; dense mesh

Spade pointer
Classic pointer shape with a wide, pear-shaped or slim, pointed shape

specalurite
See hematite

spinel
magnesium aluminum oxide; occurs in a wide variety of colors; yellow-orange and orange-red spinels are called rubicelle (diminutive of the French word for ruby); the zinc-rich, blue spinel is called ghanospinel or ghanite; Localities: Burma, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Brazil, Australia, Sweden, Turkey, USA

spiral spring
See spring

spodumene
lithium aluminum silicate; occurs in a wide range of colors, but the most well-known is a yellowish gray; The pink-violet variant Kunzite, due to its manganese content, and the emerald-green variant Hiddenit, due to its chromium content, are particularly popular - both are very brittle and therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing; Localities: Brazil, Madagascar, Burma, USA, Canada, Mexico, Sweden

Bar anchor chain
Chain shape with rectangular links that have a dividing bar in the middle

Bar curb chain
Chain shape with oval links that have a dividing bar in the middle; open stitch pattern

Steel
Metal alloy of iron and up to 1.5% carbon; the greater the carbon content, the harder the steel

Stainless steel
Engl. stainless = rust-free; Designation for stainless steel alloy/stainless steel.

staurolite
aluminum iron hydroxyl silicate; opaque, cross-shaped stones are used in jewelry, while clear crystals are not; Crystals are reddish brown to black in color and are only cut for collectors; Locations: Central and Western Europe, USA, Brazil

Sterling silver
See silver

Pin curb chain
Compact chain shape with closely spaced, irregularly shaped links; closed stitch pattern

stopwatch
timer for recording shorter periods of time between two specified points (start and stop); the normal mechanical stopwatch has a central pointer for the seconds display - depending on the balance frequency, up to 1/5 of a second can be read. Special hand stopwatches can display up to 1/10 of a second. In general, the display of tenths and hundredths of a second is reserved for electronic watches. In addition, there is usually an auxiliary dial with a minute counter / hour counter.

rhinestone
gem made of lead glass; diamond imitation; named after the French jeweler G. F. Stras

Hour counter
Sub-dial of a chronograph to display the full hours measured by the chronograph hand.

South Sea cultured pearl
Rare, valuable pearl with a diameter of 10 to 20 mm; silvery white, bluish or golden yellow; The naturally found variant is considered the queen of pearls; see also Pearl.

Freshwater cultured pearl
Irregularly shaped cultured pearl, mainly cultured in China; see also pearl. While only one pearl per mussel can be cultivated due to the size of saltwater mussels, 20 or more pearls can be cultivated at the same time with freshwater mussels of different sizes. Freshwater cultured pearls are nucleusless and therefore never perfectly round. However, they are almost 100% mother-of-pearl.

Semiround
Description for pearl type: slightly drop-shaped with a smooth, even surface

serpentine
magnesium hydroxyl silicate; Group of predominantly green minerals, two of which are primarily used in jewelry: the translucent green or blue-green bowenite and the mottled williamsite with a greasy sheen; Bowenite is found in New Zealand, China, Afghanistan, South Africa and the USA, williamsite in Italy, England and China

SG = Specific gravity
Weight of a stone that depends on its density; The basis is a comparison with the volume of the water; the greater the specific gravity, the heavier the stone

Shock-resistant
Engl. : shock resistant; a watch that is shock-resistant is equipped with a shock-safety system in which crucial parts of the movement are spring-loaded. Unfortunately, there is still no guarantee against damage caused by impact / falling.

Silver
Shiny white, very malleable and conductive precious metal, usually found in the form of crystals or grains; most silver is a by-product of lead mining; the most important silver mines are in South America, the USA and Australia; since silver is very soft, it is often alloyed with other metals; Electrum, a gold-silver alloy known to the ancient Greeks, contains 20-25% silver; Sterling silver is 92.5% (925/1000) or more, Britannia silver is 95% pure silver

sillimanite
aluminum silicate; named after the American mineralogist Silliman; blue to green; blue and violet stones come from Burma, grey-green from Sri Lanka; Other localities: India, Italy, Germany, Brazil

Simetit
See Amber

scapolite
silicate mixture; after the German geologist A. G Werner also called Wernerite; occurs in different color shades: pink, violet, blue, yellow, gray; also colorless; some pink and purple cat's eye pebbles; Localities: Brazil, Burma, Madagascar, Kenya, Canada

Skeleton clock
Partially glazed to reveal the movement. With a skeletonized movement, the part of the main plate that is not absolutely necessary for the function is removed by hand. In connection with a glass back and possibly also a skeletonized dial, fascinating insights into the function of the movement are obtained.

emerald (beryl)
beryllium aluminum silicate; is known for its intense green; it is rich in chromium and vanadium and seldom flawless, which is why most stones are oiled; the most beautiful emeralds come from Colombia; Other localities: Austria, India, Australia, Brazil, South Africa, Egypt, USA, Norway, Palistan, Zimbabwe

Emerald cut
Rectangular or square gemstone cut with step-like cut to the sides

Smithsonite (zinc spar)
zinc carbonate; frothy white with blue-green or green layers; also referred to as bonamite; pink due to cobalt content and yellow due to cadmium content; colorless crystals are found in Namibia and Zambia, blue-green in the US, Spain and Greece, yellow in the US and Sardinia

sodalite
sodium aluminum silicate; occurs in all possible shades of blue and is an essential component of lapis lazuli; the most important site is Bancroft in Ontario (Canada), where sodalite deposits were discovered during a visit by the English Princess Margret; the sodalite from Bancroft is therefore also called Princess Blue; Other localities: Brazil, Canada, India, Namibia, USA

Sundial
One of the oldest elementary clocks showing local time on a scale e.g. B indicates with the help of the shadow of a staff; this shadow changes according to the changing position of sun and earth in relation to each other = it becomes longer or shorter and wanders.

S-curved chain (Irrgang)
Compact chain shape with S-shaped links arranged close together; dense mesh

Spade pointer
Classic pointer shape with a wide, pear-shaped or slim, pointed shape

specalurite
See hematite

spinel
magnesium aluminum oxide; occurs in a wide variety of colors; yellow-orange and orange-red spinels are called rubicelle (diminutive of the French word for ruby); the zinc-rich, blue spinel is called ghanospinel or ghanite; Localities: Burma, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Brazil, Australia, Sweden, Turkey, USA

spiral spring
See spring

spodumene
lithium aluminum silicate; occurs in a wide range of colors, but the most well-known is a yellowish gray; The pink-violet variant Kunzite, due to its manganese content, and the emerald-green variant Hiddenit, due to its chromium content, are particularly popular - both are very brittle and therefore unsuitable for jewelry processing; Localities: Brazil, Madagascar, Burma, USA, Canada, Mexico, Sweden

Bar anchor chain
Chain shape with rectangular links that have a dividing bar in the middle

Bar curb chain
Chain shape with oval links that have a dividing bar in the middle; open stitch pattern

Steel
Metal alloy of iron and up to 1.5% carbon; the greater the carbon content, the harder the steel

Stainless steel
Engl. stainless = rust-free; Designation for non-rusting steel alloy/stainless steel.

staurolite
aluminum iron hydroxyl silicate; opaque, cross-shaped stones are used in jewelry, while clear crystals are not; Crystals are reddish brown to black in color and are only cut for collectors; Locations: Central and Western Europe, USA, Brazil

Sterling silver
See silver

Pin curb chain
Compact chain shape with closely spaced, irregularly shaped links; closed stitch pattern

stopwatch
timer for recording shorter periods of time between two specified points (start and stop); the normal mechanical stopwatch has a central pointer for the seconds display - depending on the balance frequency, up to 1/5 of a second can be read. Special hand stopwatches can display up to 1/10 of a second. In general, the display of tenths and hundredths of a second is reserved for electronic watches. In addition, one usually finds a sub-dial with a minute counter / hour counter.

rhinestone
gem made of lead glass; diamond imitation; named after the French Jeweler G f Stras

Hour counter
Sub-dial of a chronograph to display the full hours measured by the chronograph hand.

South Sea cultured pearl
Rare, valuable pearl with a diameter of 10 to 20 mm; silvery white, bluish or golden yellow; The naturally found variant is considered the queen of pearls; see also pearl.

Freshwater cultured pearl
Irregularly shaped cultured pearl, mainly cultured in China; see also pearl. While only one pearl per mussel can be cultivated due to the size of saltwater mussels, 20 or more pearls can be cultivated at the same time with freshwater mussels of different sizes. Freshwater cultured pearls are nucleusless and therefore never perfectly round. However, they are almost 100% mother of pearl.

930 x 520px

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