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Avalon Deluxe Jewelry Lexicon : G-M

by Emanuel Baumann 01 Jan 2023
Letter G-M

Gagat (Jett)
pitch coal; Stone of natural origin, black or dark brown, possibly with a metallic sheen; often made into mourning jewelry; Main locality: England; Other localities: Spain, France, Germany, Poland, India, Turkey, China, USA

Difference in hand positions within 24 hours compared to actual time.

time that a mechanical watch runs = time span between the state of the mainspring, in which it is fully wound, and the in which she is relaxed

rate controller
Overarching term for the part of the movement that is responsible for the accuracy of the watch; in the pendulum clock, for example, it is the pendulum, in the mechanical clock it is the balance wheel, and in the electronic clock it is the quartz; it is based on the time standard (see also time standard).

Power reserve
The time that continues to run on a mechanical watch after the mainspring has been relaxed. The remaining power reserve is displayed on the dial using a pointer and a scale.

Garibaldi chain
Compact but very fine-looking chain with several delicate links per row; rather open stitch pattern

Eight curb chain, flattened
Solid looking, very compact chain shape with S-shaped, wide links that are lined up very closely together; closed stitch pattern

See sapphire, colorless

See Spinel

The brilliance of a gemstone, its luster, is determined by the way light is reflected, which in turn is related to the surface finish of the stone related Basically, the harder the stone, the higher the light refraction and thus the shine; a distinction is made between metallic luster (e.g. B in pyrite), diamond luster (e.g. B in diamonds), vitreous (e.g. B with ruby), waxy shine (e.g. B with turquoise), greasy shine (e.g. B at, jade), resin sheen (e.g. B with amber) and silky sheen (e.g. B: for polished plaster)

Glass edge
Also bezel (French. ) called; Metal ring in which the glass of the dial is inserted and which encloses the watch glass.

Abbreviation for Greenwich Mean Time = mean solar time Greenwich; is also world or universal time, the time that prevails at the prime meridian. This runs through the English city of Greenwich.

Precious metal found in igneous rocks and quartz veins; gold bearing ores are found in Africa, California and Alaska, Canada, South America and Australia; Gold is unchangeable to almost all chemical influences, does not oxidize and is not magnetic, but in its pure form it is very soft and malleable - alloying metals such as copper, silver, nickel, zinc, cadmium, palladium and iron ensure hardness and determine the colour: pure Gold is golden yellow, alloys with palladium, silver, platinum, nickel or tin result in white gold; Red gold has a copper content, iron causes a slight blue tinge and yellow gold contains copper as well as silver; the fineness of the gold is defined by the ratio of gold to the other processed metals and is given in parts per thousand, e.g. B 333/1000 parts by weight is pure gold. The term carat used to be used here as well; 9 karat gold, (375/1000), 14 karat, (585/1000), 18-(750/000), 22-(916/1000) and 24 karat gold (pure gold) or . 999/1000.

Gold Doublé
A type of gilding in which a thin layer of gold is applied to an imitation base metal.

Gold filled
Engl. : gold coat; see gilding/gold lining

goshenite (beryl)
beryllium aluminum silicate; Goshenite is a pure, colorless beryl; named after its first location Goshen, Massachusetts (USA); Eyeglass lenses used to be made from goshenite; Other localities: Canada, Brazil, the former USSR

Grossular, green
calcium aluminum silicate; there are two types: the transparent and the opaque grossular; also called Transvaal jade due to its similarity to jade and its location in South Africa; Localities: Canada, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, the former USSR, Tanzania, South Africa, USA; a transparent green grossular called tsavorite is also known from Kenya

Grossular, pink
calcium aluminum silicate; the pure grossular garnet is colorless; it only becomes pink due to its iron content; Localities: Mexico, South Africa; pink Grossular from Mexico is also called Rosolit

Garnet Doublet
A stone composed of two parts intended to mimic the appearance of a gemstone; to do this, a layer of almandine garnet is glued to stained glass; green glass gives an emerald imitation, blue a sapphire imitation

The cutting or scratching of motifs or lettering in metal, stone, glass or similar. etc

Greenwich Time
Division of the earth into a total of 24 time zones, each with 15 degrees of longitude; the city of Greenwich near London is considered the zero point; the time shifts from zone to zone by 1 hour

Limit value
Values ​​for deviation tolerances of a watch specified during the rate accuracy test, which must not be exceeded. If the limit is exceeded, repair/maintenance of the movement is necessary.


hematite (bloodstone)
iron oxide; with metallic luster; colors the water blood red when grinding (hence its name, Greek haima = blood); there are also black crystals with iridescent areas that can form rosettes; mirror-bright hematite crystals are also called specalurite - they were used as mirrors in the past; Main localities: North America, Brazil, Venezuela and England; Other localities: England, Germany, Elba

Hardness, a key characteristic of any gemstone, is best determined by the stone's scratch resistance; Using the Mohs hardness scale (named after the German mineralogist Friedrich Mohs), stones can be divided into 10 classes based on their degree of hardness: 1 = talc (the softest mineral), 2 = gypsum, 3 = cacite, 4 = fluorite, 5 = apatite, 6 = orthoclase, 7 = quartz, 8 = topaz, 9 = corundum, 10 = diamond. Equally hard materials can scratch themselves and soft ones.

Oat grain chain
Chain shape with narrow links in the shape of oat grain

Half oscillation
Movement of a regulator in one direction between its two end points; the vibration frequency of a regulator is usually expressed in vibrations per hour. The higher the frequency, the less external influences will affect the rate regulator / rate of the watch. Therefore, simple mechanical watches usually have 18. 000 vibrations per hour, while the highest quality mechanical watches up to 36. 000 Hs/h can reach. Other common values ​​are 19. 200, 21 600, 28 800.

beryllium hydroxylborate; named after the mineralogist Axel Hamberg; colorless or yellowish-white, rarely gem quality; Locations: India, Madagascar

silicate complex; ingredient of lapis lazuli; Hauynit is mostly intergrown with other minerals; Locations: Morocco, Germany

Heliodor (beryl)
beryllium aluminum silicate; Heliodor is the name for the yellow or golden yellow beryl; Gem quality stones are rare; the highest quality can be found in Russia; other localities: Madagascar, Ukraine, Namibia, USA; Brazilian heliodorus is often pale yellow

heliotrope and plasma
silicon dioxide; both green chalcedony species; Heliotrope has red speckles due to iron deposits, plasma has yellow speckles; Main locality of heliotrope: India; other localities: Brazil, China, Australia, USA; Plasma can be found in Zimbabwe

The part of a clockwork that allows the gear train to run suddenly, e.g. B prevents the spiral spring from unwinding, thus ensuring smoothness and regularity; also transfers the energy to the regulator, which in turn ensures the regularity and thus the (relative) accuracy of the oscillation intervals through its oscillations.

hessonite (grossular garnet)
calcium aluminum silicate; Grossular grenades come in a wide variety of colors; the red-orange specimens are called hessonites; Main locality is Sri Lanka; in Madagascar they are also called cinnamon sticks; Other localities: Brazil, Canada, Siberia, Maine, California, USA

See spodumene

Small, additional dial on the main dial to display additional functions such as minutes and seconds; typical display of additional information on the chronograph

hydrated calcium boron silicate; light, soft mineral of chalky white color, usually with black or brown veining; can be easily dyed and is therefore often used as a turquoise imitation; Location: California

iron magnesium silicate; reddish iridescent with vitreous luster; the green-brown variant is called bronzite; however, it is very brittle and therefore unsuitable for processing jewellery; Localities: India, Norway, Greenland, Germany, USA


Display element on the dial, e.g. B in dot, dash or symbol form; particularly simple, elegant watches sometimes do without indices

indigolite (tourmaline)
borosilicate; dark blue to green tourmaline; Locations: Siberia, Brazil, Madagascar, USA

Indian necklace
Chain shape with round, flattened links that interlock alternately across and lengthways; tight mesh

See rhodochrosite

Iceland spar
See calcite


See jadeite

jade; sodium aluminum silicate; actually consists of two different materials: jadeite and nephrite; Jadeite consists of pyroxene crystals and occurs in a wide variety of colors; the most coveted kind, called Imperial Jade or Emperor Jade

jasper (chalcedony)
silicon dioxide; a tough, fine-grained species of Chalcedony in brown, grey-blue, red, yellow, and green; Ribbon jasper has a striation; Localities: India, Venezuela; Red and green ribbon jasper can be found in Russia, Germany and France


curb chain
Chain shape with oval links, each with two dividing bars; rather open stitch pattern

Former unit of measurement for the mixing ratio of other alloying metals (e.g. B copper, silver, palladium etc. - see also gold); one carat is the 24th Part of a kilo of fine gold: 1000:24 = 41.66 grams; also unit of weight for precious stones: 1 carat = 205 mg

carnelian (chalcedony)
silicon dioxide; a fine, translucent, red-orange species of Chalcedony with iron oxide content; the most beautiful carnelian comes from India

tin oxide; Tin ore transparent reddish brown to brown in color; Collector's value, rarely used in the jewelry industry; Localities: Malaysia, England, Germany, Australia, Bolivia, Mexico, Namibia

Cat's Eye
See Chrysoberyl

Small second
Designation for a sub-dial to display 60 seconds = one revolution of the second hand; is usually located at 6 o'clock on the large dial, because this allows the second hand to sit directly on the fourth wheel shaft; in contrast to the sweep second.

Cobra chain (Napo chain)
Very narrow, flat chain shape with triangular links placed close together; compact stitch pattern

King's chain
Until a few years ago, a complex-looking chain with double, triple and intermediate links could only be made massively and by hand.

Laying parallel to each other with a common center point; for example, the two end points of a spindle are concentric

calcium carbonate or conchiolin; mostly skeletal remains of small aquatic creatures, the coral polyps; they build stocks as they grow, which over the millennia grow into reefs or entire atolls; on the surface the coral branches show the characteristic structure of the original skeleton, either striped or veined; the most desirable is the red coral, which gets its color from calcium carbonate; black and gold corals consist of a horny organic substance called conchiolin; Red corals are found off Japan and Malaysia, black and gold corals are found off the coasts of the West Indies

magnesium aluminum silicate; largely undiscovered for jewelry processing; shimmers in a wide variety of shades of green; Localities: Madagascar, Sri Lanka, East Africa

Crystal glass
White, very pure, clear glass; contains potash and lead oxide. Also a term used to distinguish watch glasses. Generally plexiglass, crystal/mineral glass or sapphire glass.

Cog attached to the case to wind the winding stem or to set the hands. The crown is mostly on the outside of the case. The tension spring is tensioned by turning it back and forth. After pulling out the crown in different positions, the time can be set depending on the watch or e.g. B the date to be corrected. While almost all watches have a crown, the possible operation differs considerably in some cases. Therefore, always follow the instructions for your watch or ask your jeweler (CHRIST).

Crown winding
Stretch the mainspring by turning the crown using the pin on the outside of the case. The alternative is the key winder, for example in large clocks or old pocket watches.

Bead chain
Simple chain shape with balls in a row

See Spodumen

Soft but tough orange-red metal; forms an oxide layer ("verdigris"); good conductor of heat and electricity; is alloyed with zinc to form brass, with tin to form bronze and with zinc and nickel to form German silver.

General term for a mechanism that can be used to measure short periods of time, e.g. B Stopwatch or "egg timer".

aluminum silicate; pale blue to intense blue, mostly with uneven color distribution; Localities: Burma, Brazil, Kenya, Alps, India, Australia, USA


Sodium calcium aluminum silicate; orange, yellow, red or colorless; the most coveted are stones that have a colorful play of colors; Locations: Canada, Finland, Norway

lapis lazuli
semi-precious stone; Mixture of several different minerals, mainly lazurite, sodalite, hauynite, calcite and pyrite; Composition and color are different accordingly; the intense dark blue with small spots of whitish calcite and brass-colored pyrite is valued as particularly valuable; the best quality lapis lazuli comes from Afghanistan; Other localities: Argentina, Chile, USA

Total of all gears and mechanisms for the purpose of energy transfer

lazulite (blue spar)
magnesium aluminum hydroxyl phosphate; extremely rare, from mottled blue to dark blue; Main localities: USA, Brazil, India, Sweden, Austria, Switzerland, Madagascar, Angola

LCD display
Engl. : liquid crystal display = permanent liquid crystal display; certain form of digital display in quartz watches using liquid crystals.

LED display
Engl. : light emitting diodes = LED display; specific form of digital display using electroluminescent diodes powered by a battery

mixture of two or more metals, e.g. B by melting

Light metal
Metal or alloy with a specific gravity below 3.5, e.g. B Magnesium, Aluminum

Luminous hands, luminous numerals
Hands originally set with luminous radium, which could also be read in the dark; however, because of its radioactivity, the use of radium has been banned; Today, less dangerous substances are used to make the hands and numbers glow in the dark. However, it is usually no longer possible to read the clock after a long period of darkness.

Luminous digits
See luminous hands

Bezel also: bezel
Metal ring, which is applied to the middle part of the case and (mainly) has the same shape; serves as a frame for the cover glass and is often provided with indices (e.g. B at the chronograph; encloses the watch glass and, depending on the watch type, can be rotated and possibly provided with a scale.


copper hydroxyl carbonate; of intense green color and coarse character; often traversed by a black grain; Main locality: Zaire; otherwise found worldwide

Pointed, boat-shaped gemstone cut with a table surface and any number of fine surfaces

unpolished, dull; Matting is done by sandblasting, pickling, grinding or brushing

Hydrogenated magnesium silicate; fine-grained, soft and light stone with an earthy or chalky appearance; pipe bowls and cigarette holders made of meerschaum are particularly well known; most important locality: Türkiye; Other localities: Spain, Greece, USA

See Andradite

alloy of copper and 20 to 60% zinc

Abbreviation for Central European Time, i. H the time of the 15 Longitude east of Greenwich - see also Greenwich Time

potassium aluminum silicate; colorless, white, yellow, pink, red, gray, green, or cyan; However, the blue-green variant called Amazonite is mainly used for jewelry processing; Main locality: India; Other localities: USA, Canada, Madagascar, Tanzania, Namibia

Measuring device for determining very short lengths down to one micron

small metric unit; 1 micron corresponds to 1/1000 millimeter

Milanaise bracelet
Fine metal bracelet, some of which is directly attached to the watch case.

milk quartz
silicon dioxide; the characteristic milky white of this type of quartz is due to gas and liquid inclusions; very large crystals are found in Siberia; Other localities: Brazil, Alps, Madagascar, USA, Namibia

Minute ring
Sub-dial with 60 units, on which the minutes are displayed, also called minute track

See minute ring

Mean Time
Standard time within a time zone assumed for practical reasons, e.g. B the CET

Month ring
Sub-dial showing the months, mostly in abbreviated form (Jan. , Feb ), or small dial window with digital display

moonstone (orthoclase)
potassium aluminum silicate; owes the name moonstone to its opalescent shimmer; the most beautiful stones come from Burma and Sri Lanka; Other localities: India, Madagascar, Brazil, USA, Mexico, Tanzania, Alps

Moss Agate
See Agate

Morganite (beryl)
beryllium aluminum silicate; pink, peach, or purple beryl named after American banker and gem collector J. Pierpont Morgan; particularly beautiful morganite comes today from Madagascar; Other localities: Brazil, Elba, Moçambique, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Pakistan

Multifunction watch
Quartz wristwatch that, in addition to the normal time display, has other functions such as a stopwatch, timer, calendar and 24-hour display.

930 x 520px


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Sample Paragraph Text

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